Chronology of exploration. Bibliographic references conclude each article. Some black and white illustrations. N49 v. New edition adds many articles on non-Western European topics. Articles of substantial length, contributed by an international roster of scholars, on a wide range of topics in intellectual history, emphasizing interdisciplinary connections and cross-cultural relations.
Neither edition has biographical articles. Produced in association with the Renaissance Society of America. Presents nearly 1, entries by over scholars. Articles range from less than 1 page to 25 "Humanism" and 46 "Renaissance" pages. Contents cover the full range of culture and history. Time span begins with Italy in , adds the rest of Europe by , and ends in the early 17th century. Addresses trends in recent Renaissance historiography including humanism throughout Europe, increased emphasis on social history, and the study of women and has thoroughly incorporated them into the text.
Bibliographies often feature a section of primary sources and secondary materials. Many illustrations, including colored plates, maps of regions, countries, and cities, a chronology, and genealogical tables. Encyclopedia of European Social History from to Reference HN E63 v. See the chapter in volume one, pp. Bibliography at end of article. Other volumes cover processes of social change, population and geography, cities and urbanization, rural life, state and society, social structure, social protest, devians and crime, social problems and reform, gender, family, sexuality, body and mind, work, popular culture, recreation and leisure, religion, education, everyday life, and biographical articles.
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Your reader barcode: Your last name:. Cite this Email this Add to favourites Print this page. You must be logged in to Tag Records. Opello, Jr. In the Library Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. Details Collect From RF Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. The Berbers Imazighen , by Hsain Ilahiane, No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher.
ISBN hardcover : alk. Series: Historical dictionaries of peoples and cultures ; no. Manufactured in the United States of America. To my wife and liver, Ann. My identity, my culture, is not an administrative file that the authority legitimizes and draws up, opens, and closes at its convenience and with which I must comply. Culture is the daily construction of a free society. The Berbers are the remnants of the original inhabitants of North Africa, presently living in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, where they account for much of the population, and Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Mali, and Niger, where they are smaller minorities, with a notable diaspora in France.
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That much is known, but not much more, not even roughly how many of them there are, while their origins are still shrouded in mystery. This is not surprising, after surviving Punic, Roman, Byzantine, Vandal, Arab, Ottoman, French, Italian, and Spanish invasions and settlement and not really being tolerated by the governments of the modern states. They contributed heavily to the spread of Islam and are Muslims, but that, as well as pressures from a long succession of conquerors, has dampened their identity and constricted those using the language.
Yet the Imazighen or free men are still there and still cling to the hopes of greater acceptance and representation. This makes the Historical Dictionary of the Berbers Imazighen like some others in this series more significant than ordinary reference works because it has to provide information about another people whose past is less well known and whose future is less certain.
This is done in several ways, not least of which is a chronology that reaches all the way back and comes up to the present. The introduction places the Imazighen in context, showing just what they are up against. And the dictionary, the foundation of the book, provides an impressive collection of entries on important persons, places, events, institutions, and aspects of culture, society, economy, and politics, past and present.
Given the difficulty in finding out about the Berbers, the bibliography is a precious tool and leads to further sources of information. This volume was written by one of the few specialists and himself an Amazigh from Morocco, Hsain Ilahiane. This historical dictionary takes him much further in many directions, expanding his own horizons and also contributing to expanding those of interested readers. Jon Woronoff Series Editor. I would like to thank Thomas Park for encouraging me to write this book and Aomar Boum and Imad Abbadi for sharing additional material and stories on the Berbers.
I would also like to thank Abdellah Hammoudi and Nabil Chbouki for their interest in my work and encouragement and Jessaca Fox for tracking references. I would also like to acknowledge the interlibrary desk at Iowa State University whose work has made my task so much easier. I owe special thanks to both the series editor and the press for accommodating my delays as the tenure process shifted my attention.
Most important, I acknowledge my wife, Ann, and my other family in Berber country for having patience with my endeavors. It is generally recognized that efforts at transliterating North African vernacular terms and proper names and places, whether Berber or Arabic, present a real challenge for nonnative speakers of North African languages. For Arabic and Berber, the consonant kh is pronounced as in Bach and gh as the French r.
Place-names and common proper names with English and French spellings appear as they do in English and French and are not transliterated. Capsian civilization; emergence of protoMediterranean peoples, ancestors of the Berbers. Neolithic period in the Maghreb and the Sahara. Egyptian archeological records refer to a battle between the army of the Pharaohs and Libyans called tehenu.
Phoenicians acquire trading posts in Spain and establish ports of call in Sicily, North Africa, and elsewhere in the western Mediterranean. Sheshonq I, a Libyan, founds the 22nd Egyptian dynasty. Formation of Berber Kingdoms: Mauritania in the west, Massaessyles in the center, and Massyles in the east. Carthage expands into its African hinterlands.
Syphax is king of the Massaessyles of Numidia. Second Punic War. Defeat of Syphax; Massinissa encroaches on Cirta and makes it his headquarters. Massinissa, king of the Massyles kingdom. Numidic-Phoenician war; defeat of Carthage in Zema. Death of Massinissa. Hierbas unites Numidia and is ruined by Rome. Death of King Bocchus of Mauritania. Augustus gives Mauritania to Juba II as a client kingdom. Revolt of Tacfarinas.
Death of Juba II; accession of his son Ptolemy. Murder of Ptolemy by Caligula. Rome creates Mauritania Tingitana in the west and Mauritania Caesariensis in the center. Moor and Numidian revolts.
HIST 3389 / 5098: African History
Christianity enters the Maghreb. Roman consolidation; spread of olive cultivation and road network; Africans achieve influence in Rome. Lucius Quitus, a Berber, appointed to the senate and senior posts by Trajan. Birth of Apuleius of Madauros. Apuleius writes the Golden Ass; birth of Tertullian. Donatist schism begins. Rise of the Circumcelliones; increasing strength of Donatism. Donatists and Circumcelliones unite against Roman power.
Birth of Saint Augustine. Revolt of Firmus in the Kabyle Mountains, with support from Donatists. Saint Augustine becomes bishop of Hippo. Invasion of Africa by the Vandals. Saint Augustine dies during the siege of Hippo. Birth of Prophet Muhammad. Berber uprisings against the Byzantines. Arabs occupy Cyrenaica. Arabs occupy Tripoli, destroy Sabratha, and invade Fezzan and Barqa. Muslims defeat the Byzantine army at Sbeitla; occupation of Tripolitania. Arab counteroffensive; Kusayla dies. Al-Kahina dies; end of Berber resistance; the Berbers convert to Islam.
Tariq Ibn Ziyad leads the conquest of Spain. Emergence of Khariji beliefs and practices; development of the Ibadithe sect. Barghwata establish a Berber state in Tamesna along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Salih, prophet and founder of the Barghwata kingdom, reigns. Ibadithes occupy Qayrawan. Fall of the Ibadithe imamate in Tripoli. Ibn Rustum founds the city of Tahart, capital of the Rustumid dynasty. Ibadithe uprising in Africa; Ibadithe exodus to Tahart. Tahart is capital of the Ibadithes; Ibn Rustum becomes imam of the Ibadithes.
Aghlabid dynasty rules Tunisia. Aghlabids conquer Sicily. Yunnus declares the Barghwata heresy. Aghlabids conquer Malta. Aghlabids occupy Syracuse. Aghlabids crush Berbers of Nafusa, a Rustumid stronghold in Libya. Fatimids leave the Maghrib to Egypt; Zirids take over the Maghrib.
Collapse of the Idrissid dynasty.
The Empire of Ghana annexes the Saharan city of Awdaghust. Rise of the Hammadid dynasty. Banu Hilal Arabs invade the Maghrib. Almoravids establish control over central Morocco. Almoravids destroy the Barghwata heresy. Almoravids found their new capital of Marrakech. Almoravids found Bijaya. Almoravids take over Tanger; fight the Empire of Ghana and control the trans-Saharan caravan trade; birth of Ibn Tumart, the Almohad Mahdi; Bijaya becomes the capital of the Hammadids dynasty.
Almoravids complete conquest of Islamic Spain. Death of Yusuf Ibn Tachafin. Ibn Tumart is declared the Mahdi of the Almohads and fights the Almoravids. Almohads besiege Marrakech. Almohad Empire extends its control from the Atlantic to Tripolitania and from Spain to the western Sahel. Foundation of the Hafsids dynasty with Tunis as its capital.
Collapse of the Almohads dynasty. Ibn Battuta, Berber explorer, visits the Empire of Mali. Marinids establish control over Tlemcen. Christians occupy Granada, and Muslims flee to North Africa. Collapse of the Hafsid dynasty. Ottomans occupy Tlemcen. Ottoman Empire captures Libya. Ottomans take over Tunis.
Spain occupies Ceuta. Waves of Andalusi people escape to North Africa. Moulay Rachid destroys Illigh and its maraboutic family. Treaty of Paris establishes French sovereignty over Senegal and Mauritania. France begins its colonization of Algeria.
Rise of the Sanusi movement in Libya. Sanusi order founds its first zawiyas in Cyrenaica. Heinrich Barth, German explorer, visits Timbuktu. French conquest of the Kabyle. Kabyle uprisings. Aures uprising. Hodna uprising. French rule and conquest establish French Sudan. Al Mokrani uprising. Establishment of a French protectorate in Tunisia. Sanusi revolt is crushed by the French. Establishment of a French protectorate in Morocco; Spain controls most of northern and southern Morocco; Libya becomes an Italian protectorate.
Tuareg rebels led by Kaocen occupy Agadez. Berber Dahir. Libyan independence, 24 December. Rif uprising is repressed. Nigerian independence, 3 August. Malian independence, 22 September. Mauritanian independence, 28 November. Algerian independence, 5 July.
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Tuareg of Idrar Niforas in northeastern Mali rebel against the government of Mali. The Sahel suffers one of the worst droughts in memory, devastating nomadic livelihood systems. Establishment of Ateliers Imedyazen, an outreach and publication cooperative in Paris to debate and disseminate Berber issues; foundation of Tamaynut Association. Proliferation of Berber cultural associations. Drought destroys about 70 percent of Tuareg livestock. Tuareg rebel leaders and the government of Mali sign a truce; Mali and Algeria to repatriate Malian Tuareg and refugees.
Tuareg refugees begin to return to Mali from Algeria. School boycott in Kabylia. Moroccan law restricts the use of names for Moroccan children to approved Arabic-Muslim names and indirectly outlaws the use of Amazigh names not on the approved list. Assassination of Matoub Lounes, Kabyle singer and activist; riots sweep Kabylia. Publication of the Amazigh Manifesto; it calls for an inclusive approach in the reorganization and restructuring of Moroccan history and culture; questions the traditional Arab-Islamic basis of Moroccan society and history.
Algerian government recognizes the Berber language, Tamazight, as national not official language in constitutional revision. Moroccan authorities prevent the Association for the Defense of the Victims of the Spanish War from holding a conference in Al Hoceima in northern. Morocco on the Spanish use of Germanmanufactured toxic gas to put down the Berber rebellion from to Although the Berbers form sizable populations in North Africa and the Sahel, they have been reduced to a minority within their respective home states.
Berbers are the ancient inhabitants of North Africa, but rarely have they formed an actual kingdom or separate nation-state. They have, however, formed dispersed communities that came under a series of foreign invaders: the Punic settlers, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Vandals, the Arabs, the Ottomans, the French, the Spanish, and the Italian colonial powers were integrated into North African societies and in large part dominated it.
In their encounter with the Arabs, the Ottomans, and the European colonial powers, they often faced adversity and still do so because of postcolonial government policies aimed at stamping out Berber identity, language, and culture. Today, celebrating Berber contributions before and after the Arab conquest is still not entirely politically correct in North Africa.
There are many reasons for this sentiment. First, there is the Islamist plan to maintain the professed unity of Islam through its sacred language, Arabic. Second, the French use of the Berbers to support their racist policies was rejected by the nationalist and Islamist movements. Third, most of the political parties on the left and the right have always been hostile to the emphasizing of ethnic and linguistic diversity.
Consequently, the renaissance of Berber culture and history are stifled by the leftovers of the French colonial Berber question, the postindependence ideologies of Arabism, and the current Islamist discourses on the linguistic and cultural merits of Berberness. Taken together, these dynamics have over time converged to redefine the field of Berber identity and. With the arrival of the Arab Muslims in the seventh century, the word barbari took an Arabized form, al barabir or barabira.
Tamazgha is the land where Imazighen have lived since time immemorial and captures the state of being free from domination of others. In the words of anthropologist Edward H. Spicer , they are an enduring people, and their enduring qualities depend on continuous possession of a homeland sustained by such constructs as ethnicity, language, and culture.
The origin of the Imazighen as well as their racial classification and language relationship with any other Mediterranean or African race, present or ancient, has long been a subject of intense debate among scholars. Just as the definition of race remains at best a contentious cultural construct, the notion that Berbers must represent descendants of some purely homogeneous cultural group originating in a particular area or site is still a matter of conjecture.
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Throughout time and even over the past two millennia, North Africa has absorbed a large number of successive migration flows. There is no hard evidence to indicate that things were different in the so-called obscure centuries of North African historiography and archaeology. The Mekta Afalou type, associated with Capsian culture of around B. This claim, however, has been challenged, and an indigenous development from the Neanderthals has been suggested. Today, many scholars believe that the peopling of North Africa was infused with migrations from the east and south and across the straits from western Europe.
Additionally, the linguistic evidence is thin. Berber has been, for the most part of its history, a spoken rather than a written language, although there is archaeological evidence of rock art and inscriptions in deciphered Berber script, the Tifinagh still used by the Tuareg in the central Sahara. Thousands of undeciphered Libyan inscriptions have been published claiming that the earliest Libyco-Berber inscriptions date back to the third millennium B.
Berber has affinities to Semitic languages such as Arabic and Hebrew, but the connection to ancient Middle Eastern languages such as Ancient Egyptian or Akkadian writing systems remains to be fully investigated. The one statement. One study by David Hart on the glottochronology of three main dialects of the Berber language in Morocco, Tamazight Tashalhiyt, Tamazight, and Dhamazight , provides a rough date for the separation of these three dialects.
He suggests that Dhamazight of the Rif separated from Tamazight about 1, years ago, while Tamazight diverged from Tashalhiyt about 2, years ago. His analysis also suggests 2, years of divergence between Tamazight and Tashalhiyt. Although there is a strong oral tradition, the lack of a universal alphabet and a common literature has made it difficult to substantiate linguistic evidence. The first known Berber writers belong to the Roman and Byzantine cultural times and wrote in Latin or Greek. Today, much of the intellectual production of Berbers is in Arabic, French, and Spanish.
The scarce literature in Berber language is of recent date: short religious works in Arabic script and a few books of didactic character. Richer is the flow of oral literature, transmitted mainly by women, and of popular poetry, some of which has been collected and documented by a number of writers and anthropologists.
Over the centuries, there have been ethnocultural symbioses with the conquerors Phoenician, Roman, Vandal, Byzantine, Ottoman, Arab, French, and Spanish. King Massinissa of the Massyles established the first Berber state, Numidia. After his death, Numidia became a Roman client state. During Roman times, the Berbers were pushed into the hinterlands. Consequently, they mounted numerous rebellions such as that of Tacfarinas A.
The appearance and spread of Christianity produced dissention given the rise of Donatism. At the same time, insurrections led by Firmus — and Gildon contributed to the weakening of the Romans, which hastened their fall to the Vandals. The Vandals were not as successful as the Romans in controlling Berber country. However, the Vandals recognized the fighting abilities of the.
Berbers and recruited them. The Byzantines also admired the military qualities of the Berbers, but, similar to the Vandals, they found it very hard to extend their control over the entire Berber country. Al-Botr moved from the steppes and the highlands between the Nile and southern Tunisia into the Jabal Nafusa in Libya and into Algeria, where they settled in the areas of Tahart and Tlemcen, while others continued into Morocco, spread along the Mulwiyya and Sabu rivers and on the fringe of the Sahara.
Some of the Baranis moved from the Aures and Kabylia regions into the area of Oran and further on to central Morocco and parts of the Rif. Furthermore, Ibn Khaldun distinguished three major groups among the Berbers—Masmuda, Sanhaja, and Zanata—and ascribed to each a separate genealogy leading to a common ancestor. Although this dichotomy of Berber history—al-Baranis and al-Botr—is linked to his rural—urban dichotomy, it is less valuable and has probably caused much confusion in Berber scholarship.
HIST 3389 / 5098: African History
From a modern anthropological perspective, not only is this folk history discredited, but so also is the notion that ethnic groups in a region such as the Maghrib can be neatly classified as either sedentary or nomadic. Human adaptation in the Maghrib is far too complex and messy for such a simple and static dichotomy to explain. The attitude of the Berbers toward the Arab advance in the seventh century was expressed in two major ways.
Berber warriors fought on the side of the Arabs on their march through North Africa against the Byzantine forces. Tarif and his men, the first to cross the straits into Spain, were Berbers, as were Tariq Ibn Ziyad and his force of 12, who overran the Visigoth capital Toledo. The main body of the army that conquered the Iberian Peninsula and pushed deep into France consisted of Berber contingents.
At the time, the Arabs were soon confronted with insurrections instigated by misuse of power, high taxation,. This resistance was illustrated in the revolts of al-Kahina and of Kusayla Ibn Lemten. More dangerous was the insurrection of a large tribal confederation under Maysara al-Matghari, which in the last days of the Umayyad led to the defection of the whole Berber country. Inseparably connected with the political quality of this resistance is its religious dimension in the form of popular adoption of the Kharejite doctrine and practices. This heresy, viewed as revolutionary by orthodox Sunni Islam on which the caliphate sustained its political leadership, was in decline in the east, while its variants, such as the Ibadhiyyah and the Sufriyya, found fertile soil in Berber political and economic grievances in North Africa.
The growing number of Berber proselytes came from among the early converts to Islam, from pagan tribes and the Christian sedentary communities. A number of heterodox Berber theocracies were established in the eighth century by the Rustumid in Tahart, by the Banu Midrar in Sijilmassa extending eastward into Jabal Nafusa in Tripolitania, by Abu Qurra in Agadir near present-day Tlemcen , and by the Barghwata confederation on the Atlantic coast. Berber Ibadithe groups have survived to the present day in Tripolitania in the Jabal Nafusa, in Tunisia on the island of Jerba and in the oases of Jarid, and in southern Algeria in the Oued Mzab, where they make up the Mozabite communities.
Longer than the temporal authority of the Arab caliphate and its version of Islam, the Berbers remained, for the most part, noncompliant to the process of Arabization. Banu Dhu al-Nun — , and Banu Ghaaniya — The most famous North African dynasties were the Almoravids — and the Almohads — , who distinguished themselves by their military power, territorial and political expansion, and cultural achievements. They united the Berbers of North Africa, if only for a short time. Although with minor variations, within the widespread Berber society, Berbers have crafted age-old social and economic institutions.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, for political reasons French colonial administrations in Algeria and Morocco accorded official recognition to Berber customary law and its dispensation in tribal and rural courts. In Morocco, nationwide opposition led to the revocation of the Berber Dahir as far as penal jurisdiction was concerned. Although Imazighen are unjustly considered a minority in North Africa, the area that Berber speakers inhabit is vast and testifies to the sheer size and broad spread of the Amazigh population.
While official census data on the demographic characteristics and dynamics of Imazighen are sorely lacking, Amazigh scholars and activists claim that perhaps 80 to 90 percent of the North African population remains ethnically Amazigh, although a large segment of this percentage has been significantly Arabized and has thereby lost its original Amazigh identity markers. Tamazgha, or the original homeland of the Berbers, stretches east to west from Siwa in the Western Desert of Egypt to the Canary Islands and north to south from the Mediterranean shores to Mauritania and the southern limits of the Niger and Senegal rivers.
A series of Berber-speaking villages extend from Jabal Nafusa in Libya through southeastern Tunisia to the island of Jerba, where many Berbers practice the Ibadithe sect. In Tunisia, Berber speakers constitute less than 1 percent of the population, while they make up 4 percent of the population of Libya. South of the mountains lie the oases of the Mozabites, Ibadithe Berbers who live in five villages along the Oued Mzab.
The number of Tuareg varies from sources to source, and the estimates vary between 2 and 3 million. In Algeria, Berber speakers constitute about 20 percent of the Algerian population. In Morocco, Berber speakers make up about 45 to 50 percent of the population Mohamed Chafiq estimates the number of Berber speakers in Morocco to be about 80 percent.
In all, despite the fact that the exact numbers of Berber speakers in Tamazgha and in the diaspora are hard to come by because of the sensitive political nature of census taking, official as well as nonofficial estimates point to a range of between 15 and 50 million Berber speakers. The last half of the 20th century, despite playing leading roles in the fight against colonialism and nation building of their respective nationstates, has not been kind to the aspirations of the Berbers in North Africa.
Ever since independence, government policies have marginalized Berber regions, stifled and belittled Berber language and culture, and displaced and destabilized entire populations, as in the case of the Tuareg refugees. Berber political activism, whether it took the form of the Berberist crisis in Algeria or the Rif revolts or other Berber rebellions in Morocco, led to repression and oppression of all things Berber.
Since the uprising in Tizi Ouzou in the spring of , also known as the Berber Spring, Berbers have organized and demonstrated for cultural, linguistic, and economic rights—and self-determination or regional autonomy in the case of the Tuareg. Berbers believe that they have been shortchanged by state policies of education, culture, and economic modernization. Government responses, in most cases, have been brutal and repressive and usually took the form of police crackdowns and military assaults.
To complicate matters even more, the rise of political Islam and its relentless pursuit of a strict orthodox Sunni Islam in the s further aggravated the situation and demands of the Berbers. Today, the Amazigh question remains a sensitive cultural and political issue in North Africa because it is explicitly connected to a range of contested ideas about language, place, and religion—or politics of identity boundaries. In the first years of the 21st century, to circumvent Amazigh cultural and linguistic rights and identity claims, North African governments have made hesitant efforts to at least start the discussion of the remote possibility of considering Tamazight an official and equal language to its sister, Arabic, in their constitutions.
While Tamasheq, the language of the Tuareg, is a national language in Niger and Mali, the politicking of the Amazigh question is an ongoing, frenzied contest between Arabists, Islamicists, and secularists in Algeria and Morocco. Despite his modest socioeconomic background, he earned a baccalaureate in mathematics. Afterward, he served as a clerk in the colonial administration in the city hall of the mixed commune of Chelghoum el-Aid, former Chateaudun-du-Rhumel and as a noncommissioned officer in the French army during World War II. He was sentenced to six years in jail, with internment in the Haut-Rhin in France.
Abbane is best remembered for his active role in shaping the Soummam Valley Congress on 20 August in Kabylia. His role in the Soummam Valley Congress as well as his stand on the principles that the external delegation should be subordinate to the internal affairs and leadership of the revolution and that the civilian and political wing of the FLN should control the military made him undesirable in several nationalist circles. In , he was lured by his detractors to Morocco, where he was strangled to death by the external delegation leaders of the FLN.
His murder eliminated a passionate and tireless Kabyle, who had the potential to provide a social and economic roadmap for the revolution. Theologian of the Malikite school of law, professing puritan convictions, descended from the Jazula, one of the Sanhaja tribes nomadizing in the Sahara. Soon, however, Guddala opposition to his strict religious norms caused Ibn Yasin and his followers to withdraw to an island along the Senegal River.
There he created a militant reforming movement, a ribat, sustained by the holy war for the defense of the spread of the faith. Within a short period of time, this small community of Murabitin was joined by other adepts and led by Ibn Yasin, who founded the historymaking Almoravid Empire. While still a youth, he left his home to study in the Arab East al-Mashriq at the renowned seats of religious learning, and he joined Ibn Tumart when he heard him preaching around Bougie. He was closest to Ibn Tumart, and it was he whom the Mahdi Ibn Tumart shortly before his death instituted as his successor Everywhere a network of missionaries spread and kept alive the tenets of the Almohad faith and the principles of the theocratic movement that rested on it.
He left one of the most powerful, large, and solidly institutionalized empires in the history of the Maghrib. He died in and was buried in Jbal Tinmal beside the tomb of Ibn Tumart. The Al-Wadids were a clan of the Banu Wasin, a branch of the Zanata confederation, and related, but in hereditary hostility to, the Moroccan dynasty of the Marinids. In the years of its decline, their leader Abu Yahya Yaghmurasan Ibn Zayyan was governor of the town of Tagrart, a foundation of the Almoravid ruler Yusuf Ibn Tashafin with which the neighboring town of Agadir was to grow into the city of Tlemcen.
Respected for his just and wise leadership and political insight, Yaghmurasan spoke in his Zanata dialect and set up a solid government structure. A prominent Nigerien civil servant, former minister of state enterprises, and Tuareg leader. From to , he served as interim secretary in charge of administrative reforms. He is claimed to have been an active supporter of the Tuareg rebellion in northern Niger. In , he was the first governor of Tafilalet Province. He was incarcerated for almost four years.
He is said to have been executed in January , and he was buried in Karrandou, his native village, which is about 15 kilometers south of Rich. Its large Azna mostly Hausa population is greatly intermixed with Tuareg and other ethnic groups. The hostile environment of Ader is characterized by dry-season sandstorms and the harmattan winds. They are an Arabized Hispano-Berber dynasty belonging to the Maknassa clans settled in the area north of Cordoba. They are also known as Banu Aftas and sometimes referred to as Banu Maslama.
At one time, with their seat at Badajoz, they ruled almost the entire western area of the Iberian Peninsula, stretching from the valley of the Guadiana into present-day Portugal, including Lisbon. After several attempts to stop the advance of the Abbasid rulers of Seville and the kings of Castile and Leon, the Aftasid capital, Badajoz, was conquered by an Almoravid army , and two of the last Aftasid heirs fell into the hands of the enemy and lost their lives.
A third heir and some of his followers found refuge with King Alfonso and were converted to Catholicism. For more than years, Agadez has been a crossroads for Berbers and sub-Saharan Africans, Arab traders, and European explorers, a place of Ghanaian gold and Makkan pilgrims, Barbary horses, and Ottoman brocades. The town is famous for its 16thcentury mosque and its During the Sahel droughts of the s, the arrival of nomadic refugees caused a dramatic population increase to about , Today, what brings outsiders to Agadez are the goods and services of a new millennium—high-grade uranium and high-end tourism.
The origin of the sultanate is found in the Chronicles of Agadez and the oral histories of certain Tuareg tribes: the Kel Owey, Kel Ferwan, and Itesen. The sultanate is still a living institution, a body of men and women whose functions in the city and surrounding region are both very much of the moment and deeply embedded in the past. In , Younous was removed from power by his son Ag Hassan, who himself was deposed by his brother Alissoua in Alissoua was the one who selected Agadez actually Tagadest or Eguedech as the capital of the sultanate.
In the beginning, the sultanate was largely nomadic but finally settled first at Tadeliza, then Tin Chaman, and finally Agadez. The sultan had no real authority except moral power over those clans that accept his authority. As a major trade hub, the northward routes linked Agadez to Tamanrasset, Touat, Tassili, and Fezzan; the southward routes led to Hausa land, Benin, and Bornu; the westward routes led to In Gall and on to Timbuktu; and the eastward routes led to Bilma, Tibesti, and Kufra.
In , however, the town was sacked by the Kel Owey, contributing to its decline. With the emergence of the salt trade, Agadez regained some of its former importance but never became again the powerful state it had once been. In , Heinrich Barth reported that the town was in an advanced state of ruin. The next sultan, Tagama, ruled until , when he joined rebellious forces against French colonial rule. After breaking the siege of Agadez, the French massacred and executed hundreds of religious and civil leaders. Tagama was murdered, and Ibrahim edDasouqy was reappointed sultan.
On his death, Umar became sultan and ruled until the s.
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