Although studies about Waldorf education tend to be small-scale and vary in national context, a recent independent comprehensive review of the literature concluded there is evidence that Waldorf education encourages academic achievement as well as "creative, social and other capabilities important to the holistic growth of a person. In comparison to state school pupils, European Waldorf students are significantly more enthusiastic about learning, report having more fun and being less bored in school, view their school environments as pleasant and supportive places where they are able to discover their personal academic strengths,  and have more positive views of the future.
A German study found that an above-average number of Waldorf students become teachers, doctors, engineers, scholars of the humanities, and scientists. Some observers have noted that Waldorf educators tend to be more concerned to address the needs of weaker students who need support than they are to meet the needs of talented students who could benefit from advanced work. Professor of educational psychology Clifford Mayes said "Waldorf students learn in sequences and paces that are developmentally appropriate, aesthetically stimulating, emotionally supportive, and ecologically sensitive.
Professor of education Bruce Uhrmacher considers Steiner's view on education worthy of investigation for those seeking to improve public schooling, saying the approach serves as a reminder that "holistic education is rooted in a cosmology that posits a fundamental unity to the universe and as such ought to take into account interconnections among the purpose of schooling, the nature of the growing child, and the relationships between the human being and the universe at large," and that a curriculum need not be technocratic , but may equally well be arts-based.
Thomas Nielsen, assistant professor at the University of Canberra 's education department, said that imaginative teaching approaches used in Waldorf education drama, exploration, storytelling, routine, arts, discussion and empathy are effective stimulators of spiritual-aesthetic, intellectual and physical development, expanding "the concept of holistic and imaginative education" and recommends these to mainstream educators.
Andreas Schleicher , international coordinator of the PISA studies, commented on what he saw as the "high degree of congruence between what the world demands of people, and what Waldorf schools develop in their pupils," placing a high value on creatively and productively applying knowledge to new realms. This enables "deep learning" that goes beyond studying for the next test. That education leaves a strong mark of thoroughness, carefulness, and thoughtfulness.
Robert Peterkin, director of the Urban Superintendents Program at Harvard's Graduate School of Education and former Superintendent of Milwaukee Public Schools during a period when Milwaukee funded a public Waldorf school, considers Waldorf education a "healing education" whose underlying principles are appropriate for educating all children.
List of publications
Waldorf education has also been studied as an example of educational neuroscience ideas in practice. In , educational scholar Heiner Ullrich wrote that intensive study of Steiner's pedagogy had been in progress in educational circles in Germany since about and that positions were "highly controversial: they range from enthusiastic support to destructive criticism. Aspects of mainstream practice which could inform good practice in Waldorf schools included: management skills and ways of improving organizational and administrative efficiency; classroom management; work with secondary-school age children; and assessment and record keeping.
Many elements of Waldorf pedagogy have been used in all Finnish schools for many years. Ashley described seven principal ways Waldorf education differed from mainstream approaches: its method of working from the whole to the parts, its attentiveness to child development, its goal of freedom, the deep relationships of teachers to students, the emphasis on experiencing oral traditions, the role of ritual and routine e. In states where nonmedical vaccine exemption is legal — Waldorf schools were reported to have a high rate of vaccine exemption within their student populations.
Rudolf Steiner founded the first Waldorf school several years before vaccinations for tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough were invented. The Association of Waldorf Schools of North America released the following in a statement in  :. The Association of Waldorf Schools of North America wishes to state unequivocally that our educational objectives do not include avoidance of, or resistance to, childhood immunization. The health, safety, and wellbeing of children are our forefront concerns. Racist attitudes and behaviour have been reported in particular Waldorf schools, including teachers reportedly expressing a view that individuals reincarnate through various races.
The BBC and the Independent have both reported that Steiner believed in a hierarchy of races, with the white race at the top, and associated intelligence with having blonde hair and blue eyes. The American organization for Waldorf schools AWSNA has directly rejected the racism purported to exist in the above-mentioned schools, saying that "racist or discriminatory tendencies are not tolerated in Waldorf schools or Waldorf teacher training institutes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains content that is written like an advertisement.
Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: History of Waldorf schools. Further information: Curriculum of the Waldorf schools. Further information: Studies of Waldorf education.
Forest Row: Sophia Books. Lehrerbildung in der Waldorfschule. Weinheim, DE: Juventa. The Verge. Retrieved 3 December The Supreme Court Review. BBC News. The Independent. And Do Parents Care?
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The Atlantic. Retrieved 21 May Paschen ed. Bruce Winter Curriculum Inquiry. Anthroposophical Society in Australia. Retrieved 26 December The Quackometer Blog.
Retrieved 25 December Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig ed. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren. Teachers College Record. The Educational Forum. European Journal of Educational Studies, 3 1 : 53— Bruce Waldorf schools in East Germany were closed by the DDR educational authorities, who justified this as follows: the pedagogy was based on the needs of children, rather than on the needs of society, was too pacifistic, and had failed to structure itself according to pure Marxist-Leninist principles.
Retrieved 1 May In recent years, China has seen a major expansion of alternative teaching establishments such as those that operate under the educational principles of Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner. China Daily. BBC News — via www. Retrieved 29 November Rudolf Steiner Archive.
Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 28 February The Education of the Child. The New York Times. UK Department for Education and Skills. Archived from the original PDF on 1 April Rod Parker-Rees ed. The first epoch 0—7 years , when the child is intensely sensitive to people and surroundings, is seen by Steiner educators as the empathic stage - where empathy means embracing the unconscious of another with one's own unconscious, to live into the experience of another.
The kindergarten teacher purposefully employs her own empathic ability as she strives to be a role model worthy of imitation by the children, but she also creates a space and ethos conducive to imaginative play that actively develops children's capacity for empathy. Rudolf Steiner. London: Continuum International Pub. In Linda Miller, Linda Pound ed. Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years.
SAGE Publications. Retrieved 29 April A Natural History of Place in Education. McGraw-Hill International. Retrieved 28 November Woods Murray Thomas, "Levels in education practice. The child from five to ten. Theory into Practice. Anthroposophic Press The Urban Review. Philip A. Woods; Glenys J. Woods eds. Palgrave Macmillan. British Journal of Educational Studies. In individuals the temperaments are mixed in the most diverse ways, so that it is possible only to say that one temperament or another predominates in certain traits.
Temperament inclines toward the individual, thus making people different, and on the other hand joins individuals together in a group so proving that it has something to do both with the innermost essence of the human being and with universal human nature.
London: Continuum. Whedon Retrieved 6 December Steiner Schools in England. For example, melancholic children like sitting together because they are unlikely to be annoyed or disturbed by their neighbors. Livelier temperaments such as sanguine or choleric are said to be likely to rub their liveliness off on each other and calm down of their own accord.
Little evidence of this aspect of practice was immediately apparent to outside observers, and teachers did not readily volunteer to talk about it. Retrieved 10 January Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. Iannone, Patricia A. London: RoutledgeFalmer. Holistic Education Review. Krogh, "Models of Early Childhood Education. Sharpe Xlibris Corporation. Journal of Curriculum Studies. The Telegraph. PCK and Beyond. Sullivan, P.
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