The theory of planned behavior specifies the nature of relationships between beliefs and attitudes. According to these models, people's evaluations of, or attitudes toward behavior are determined by their accessible beliefs about the behavior, where a belief is defined as the subjective probability that the behavior will produce a certain outcome. Specifically, the evaluation of each outcome contributes to the attitude in direct proportion to the person's subjective possibility that the behavior produces the outcome in question.
Outcome expectancy was originated from the expectancy-value model. It is a variable-linking belief, attitude, opinion and expectation. The theory of planned behavior's positive evaluation of self-performance of the particular behavior is similar to the concept to perceived benefits, which refers to beliefs regarding the effectiveness of the proposed preventive behavior in reducing the vulnerability to the negative outcomes, whereas their negative evaluation of self-performance is similar to perceived barriers, which refers to evaluation of potential negative consequences that might result from the enactment of the espoused health behavior.
The concept of social influence has been assessed by social norm and normative belief in both the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. Individuals' elaborative thoughts on subjective norms are perceptions on whether they are expected by their friends, family and the society to perform the recommended behavior. Social influence is measured by evaluation of various social groups. For example, in the case of smoking:. While most models are conceptualized within individual cognitive space, the theory of planned behavior considers social influence such as social norm and normative belief, based on collectivistic culture-related variables.
Given that an individual's behavior e. Human behavior is guided by three kinds of consideration: behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs. In their respective aggregates, behavioral beliefs produce a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the behavior, normative beliefs result in a subjective norm, and control beliefs gives rise to perceived behavioral control. In combination, the attitude toward the behavior, the subjective norm, and the perceived behavioral control lead to the formation of a behavioral intention.
As a general rule, the more favorable the attitude toward behavior and the subjective norm, and the greater the perceived behavioral control, the stronger the person's intention to perform the behavior should be. Finally, given a sufficient degree of actual control over the behavior, people are expected to carry out their intentions when the opportunity arises.
In a simple form, behavioral intention for the theory of planned behavior can be expressed as the following mathematical function:. The three factors being proportional to their underlying beliefs: .
Theory of planned behavior
To the extent that it is an accurate reflection of actual behavioral control, perceived behavioral control can, together with intention, be used to predict behavior. The theory of planned behavior can cover people's non-volitional behavior which cannot be explained by the theory of reasoned action.
An individual's behavioral intention cannot be the exclusive determinant of behavior where an individual's control over the behavior is incomplete. By adding "perceived behavioral control," the theory of planned behavior can explain the relationship between behavioral intention and actual behavior. Several studies found that the TPB would help better predict health-related behavioral intention than the theory of reasoned action.
In addition, the theory of planned behavior as well as the theory of reasoned action can explain the individual's social behavior by considering "social norm" as an important variable. Some scholars claim that the theory of planned behavior is based on cognitive processing, and they have criticised the theory on those grounds. More recently, some scholars criticize the theory because it ignores one's needs prior to engaging in a certain action, needs that would affect behaviour regardless of expressed attitudes. For example, one might have a very positive attitude towards beefsteak and yet not order a beefsteak because he is not hungry.
Or, one might have a very negative attitude towards drinking and little intention to drink and yet engage in drinking as he's seeking group membership. Also, one's emotions at the interviewing or decision-making time are ignored despite being relevant to the model as emotions can influence beliefs and other constructs of the model.
Still, poor predictability for health-related behavior in previous health research seems to be attributed to poor application of the model, associated methods and measures. Most of the research is correlational, and more evidence based on experimental studies is welcome although experiments, by nature, lack external validity because they prioritize internal validity. Indeed, some experimental studies challenge the assumption that intentions and behaviour are merely consequences of attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioural control.
To illustrate, in one study  , participants were prompted to form the intention to support a specific environmental organisation--such as to sign a petition. After this intention was formed, attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioural control shifted. Participants became more likely to report positive attitudes towards this organisation and were more inclined to assume their social group would share comparable attitudes .
These findings imply the associations between the three key elements--attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioural control--and intentions may be bi-directional. In particular, several studies found that the TPB would better help to predict health-related behavioral intention than the theory of reasoned action TRA  given that the TPB has improved the predictability of intention in various health-related fields such as condom use,   leisure,  exercise,  and diet,  where the attitudes and intentions to behave in a certain way are mediated by goals rather than needs.
However, if a need is taken in calculation health related or partner finding the TPB fails. Assuming that one's need is to find a partner, if the partner is found and she like him overweight, or does not mind one's weight, then despite his positive attitude towards losing weight, he won't engage in a such behaviour as he might lose his partner, the main reason for engaging in dieting in first place. The TPB also shows good applicability in regards to antisocial behaviours, such as using deception in the online environment.
More closely related to the concerns of the present study, Hessing, ElVers, and Weigel examined the TRA in relation to tax evasion and contrasted self-reports with official documentation. Findings indicated that while attitudes and subjective norms correlate with self-reported behaviour, it does not correlate with documentary evidence, in spite of considerable effort to maintain the anonymity of respondents.
Another application of the theory of planned behavior is in the field of environmental psychology. Generally speaking, actions that are environmentally friendly carry a positive normative belief. That is to say, sustainable behaviors are widely promoted as positive behaviors. However, although there may be a behavioral intention to practice such behaviors, perceived behavioral control can be hindered by constraints such as a belief that one's behavior will not have any impact.
Applying the theory of planned behavior in these situations helps explain contradictions between sustainable attitudes and unsustainable behavior. The theory of planned behavior model is thus a very powerful and predictive model for explaining human behavior. That is why the health and nutrition fields have been using this model often in their research studies. In one study, utilizing the theory of planned behavior, the researchers determine obesity factors in overweight Chinese Americans.
Besides the similarities, it is important to note that SCCT argues some distinctions. First, compared to EIM — the main theory with focusing on the specific context of entrepreneurship, SCCT can avoid the problematic absence of the construct outcome expectation Boyd and Vozilos, This is really problematic in entrepreneurship intention literature, as there are some empirical studies which give support for the relationship between perceived desirability, attitude toward new venture creation and outcome expectation with entrepreneurial intention.
Furthermore, there is an inconsistent understanding of perceived desirability and attitude toward new venture creation Guerrero et al. Concretely, the function of the construct perceived desirability is broader than only judgments concerning whether a behavior is good or bad and whether someone is in favor for or against enacting a given behavior which is a function of the variable attitude toward new venture creation.
Nevertheless, in general, perceived desirability is conceptualized commonly as narrower than attitude toward behavior Ajzen, , so that the alternative construct of outcome expectation can handle this inconsistency between the theories of TPB and SEE, as well as can avoid the problematic absence of the construct itself in the EIM theory. More important is the fact that the decision establishing a new social venture is not for entertainment.
It rather is a career-related decision in accordance with the magnitude of problems faced around the globe which need sympathetic and realistic solutions Ghosh, Thus, together with this unique context, understanding the individual, socio-cognitive and environment characteristics influencing on such a challenging career decision is really critical. The extension of SCCT concerning with personal and contextual factors is seen as a promising comprehensive theoretical background for Int-SE formation.
Therefore, by applying it to SE, we propose: P1. Lent and his co-authors found an average weighted correlation of 0. A few years later, some empirical research supported this interrelation that with higher self-efficacy, there is an enhancement of outcome expectations Fouad and Smith, ; Lent et al. Moreover, Landry also confirms the positive and significant correlation between self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Thus, in the context of SE, we propose: P3. Another way of saying that is self-efficacy and outcome expectations are influenced by environment factors. The concept of environmental variables includes two basic categories named as objective and subjective environment.
Following the idea of contextual variables in the model of career development, Huuskonen again confirms that goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness. Otherwise, they are shaped by interacting with the environment and persons themselves. Additionally, there are numerous meta-analysis studies which also provide support for that argument Sesen, ; Zhao et al. Thus, this paper will limit itself to paying attention on such antecedents. It has recently seen a reemergence of the interest in the role of personality in entrepreneurship after a hiatus of almost 20 years Baum and Locke, ; Baum et al.
This phenomenon can be easily understood because entrepreneurs are individuals who possess a specific set of personality traits which differentiate from non-entrepreneurs Gartner, , and personality plays a significant role when situations are complex and uncertain like entrepreneurship, especially in its initial stages Frank et al. Personality is identified as an interpersonal process and consistent behavior patterns immanent in the individual himself Burger, One of the most common and useful methods used to clarify personality traits is the so-called Big Five Personality Model or Five-Factor Model, as this model provides a meaningful and parsimonious framework with a comprehensive set of broad personality constructs instead of a vast and often confusing variety of personalities variables Costa and McCrae, cited in McCrae and John, The names of those five factors are agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism and openness Burger, ; Costa and McCrae, Agreeableness describes someone who has the tendency to be sympathetic and cooperative rather than suspicious of others.
Someone with a low level of agreeableness can be characterized as manipulative, self-centered, doubtful and ruthless. On the contrary, individuals who are high on agreeableness possess all such things like being trusting, forgiving, caring, altruistic and gullible Digman, ; Costa and McCrae, They often show sympathy and concern for others, which are typical characteristics for social entrepreneurs who care much more for people in their society, especially weaker or poorer persons or persons in need of help from others. Barrick and Mount reported that highly agreeable people are most likely to have career interests in social occupations where they can work for the benefit of others and not for themselves, such as social work or teaching, rather than business.
Besides that, agreeableness concerns the ability to strengthen social consensus while upholding mutual understanding and mutual trust Llewellyn and Wilson, cited in Farrington, Agreeableness in interpersonal relationships contains the ability to be a good listener and to be a patient, compassionate and good-promoting harmonious person in social interactions Caliendo and Kritikos, All these traits may facilitate a social entrepreneur to delve deeply into social problems together with setting up a business and a social network, which is really necessary for creating a new social venture.
As a consequence, it is expected that highly agreeable people are likely to be more attracted to SE. Conscientious people are driven by a strong sense of responsibility, laboriousness and need for achievement which promotes their reliability at work Ciavarella et al.
McClelland concluded that high-need-for-achievement individuals would be attracted to entrepreneurship because it offers more of these conditions than most traditional forms of employment. Likewise, certain other traits under the conscientiousness dimension, for instance, work goal orientation, hard work and perseverance in the face of horrible obstacles to achieve goals, are also closely associated with entrepreneurship in the popular imagination Locke, Working in the SE field is even much more challenging than business entrepreneurship.
Hence, people usually must be even more responsible for others and more hard-working as well as driven by achievement. We suppose that high conscientious people engage more into SE. Extraversion illustrates people who are assertive, dominant, energetic, active, positive, emotional and enthusiastic to an extent Costa and McCrae, Therefore, extraverted individuals are manifested by sociable, outgoing, positive attitude and assertive characteristics Ciavarella et al. Extraversion contributes to the proactive personality required in nourishing the instinct and driving the charismatic vision of the social entrepreneur Crant, Social entrepreneurs are expected to possess extraversion, as they have to be willing and able to communicate well with a myriad of stakeholders.
Additionally, a detailed analysis of extraversion characteristics comprises reward sensitivity, sociability and positive emotions founded to off-set one another Ciavarella et al. This may explain that someone with higher extraversion will have higher intention to become a social entrepreneur. Neuroticism refers to the degree of emotional stability of someone Singh and DeNoble, People who own a high neuroticism trait are likely to show a number of negative emotions, such as anxiety, hostility and depression Costa and McCrae, Moreover, in both the popular thinking and the academic literature, entrepreneurs are typically described as hardy, optimistic and steady in the face of social pressure, stress and uncertainty Locke, Entrepreneurs take on a great deal of personal responsibility for the success or failure of their new venture.
Therefore, they take on physical and emotional burdens, and they press ahead where others might be discouraged by obstacles, setbacks or self-doubt. These entrepreneurial traits and behaviors describe someone with a high level of emotional stability. In other words, people high on emotional stability are likely to want to take on the personal responsibilities and strains associated with the entrepreneurial role, especially in the context of SE.
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Openness is a personality trait that describes someone who is intellectually curious, imaginative and creative; someone who seeks out new ideas and alternative values and aesthetic standards Costa and McCrae, There is another definition that openness is the tendency to be creative, curious, adventurous and receptive to new experience Singh and DeNoble, Consequently, people who are highly open to new experiences tend to more likely be social entrepreneurs.
For example, proactivity, need for achievement, locus of control, conscientiousness, innovation orientation and openness to experiences have a robust direct influence on intentions Collins et al. Likewise, someone who is always calm, self-confident and optimistic and communicates well with others will logically believe much more in their capabilities of acting and believe in positive results of their performance, which in turn will increase their intention to do something as well.
In this sense, we suggest: P4. Personality will be directly related to Int-SE. Entrepreneurial activities may be explained by the effects of the surrounding business and societal environment. The significantly growing number of research works about contextual factors influencing on entrepreneurial behaviors can confirm that idea. According to Penning et al. Furthermore, literature also shows the interest in two other factors, such as education Kristiansen and Indarti, ; Peterman and Kennedy, and role models in terms of influencing elements on the decision to start a business Jacobowitz and Vidler, ; Shapero and Sokol, ; Krueger and Carsrud, Thereupon, this paper will focus on those contextual elements.
Literature suggests that role models play an important role in the decision to start a business Jacobowitz and Vidler, ; Shapero and Sokol, ; Krueger and Carsrud, Therefore, generally, role models are expected to enhance intentions, as watching others perform a task may gain a positive and confident attitude toward the behavior, especially if there are similarities between the observer and the observed person Cooper and Park, cited in Linan, Education and entrepreneurial training are really important in promoting entrepreneurial activities. Education provides knowledge, skills and experiences in entrepreneurship, which are mentioned as a source for entrepreneurship in general, as well as SE in particular Corner and Ho, ; Perrini, ; Sharir and Lerner, ; Robinson, ; Baron and Ensley, ; McMullen and Shepherd, ; Shane, , ; Drayton, On the one hand, people are less likely to be entrepreneurs if they have limited education Varghese and Hassan, On the other hand, they would be more motivated to do something or able to consider a career or self-employment if they know much more about the market they will move into or for which they feel they have relevant skills.
Additionally, Zhao et al. Generally, entrepreneurship is facilitated when information comes from a wide range of trustworthy personal contacts in a personal network Johannisson, Especially, in the beginning of a venture, people use networks to exchange ideas and advices, generate new ideas and pursue visions and collect resources, rather than decrease uncertainty, as in the case of general management Johannisson, Here, important factors are not only direct contacts but also numerous potential linkages to lawyers, bankers, venture capitalists, accountants, technical consultant, academics, customers, suppliers or trade associations Carsrud and Johnson, The perceived support from the currently existing business opportunities e.
To conclude, we suppose that perceived support has a significant impact toward entrepreneurship as a career choice. All in all, contextual factors including education, role models and perceived support affect SE. Furthermore, the connection between contextual factors and entrepreneurial intention can be mediated by self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For instance, individuals will have higher self-efficacy if they think they have knowledge, skills and experience Zhao et al. In the same way, people properly will have more optimistic beliefs in their capacities and positive expected outcomes when they see many similarities between themselves and some role models, or experience a lot of support from the surrounding environment, and then finally will be more likely to start doing a business Cooper and Park, ; Segal et al.
Contextual factors will be directly related to Int-SE. In addition, personalities i.
As social entrepreneurship is still in the beginning, this paper provides new insights into the literature by providing a well-organized conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intention. The result also brings important implications for practice as well as raises a broad future direction for other researchers. Although the SCCT is recently suggested as an inclusive framework of factors affecting entrepreneurial intention Doan Winkel et al. Therefore, this paper fills this gap, as it is the first study of formulating a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intention by adapting and extending SCCT.
The main idea of this model is to take consideration of linkages between social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, social entrepreneurial outcome expectation and social entrepreneurial intention. In addition, the model also illustrates that personality traits, education, role models and perceived supports will influence intention to become a social entrepreneur in two ways. On the one hand, they can have direct effects on the intention.
This paper also draws out a lot of new definitions in the specific context of social entrepreneurship as social entrepreneurial intention, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social entrepreneurial outcome expectation. It opens a new approach for doing research in this field with these new insights.
The conceptual model itself presents important theoretical contributions as well. First, it is a potentially promising model because it combines a diversity of the supported relationships between antecedents and cognitive constructs found in existing theoretical models of intention entrepreneurship. Second, it reduces the substantial conceptual overlap and avoids the inconsistency in existing models by using SCCT as its ground.
Consequently, the decision of establishing a new social venture is not for entertainment. It rather is a career-related decision in accordance with the magnitude of problems faced around the global which need sympathetic and realistic solutions Ghosh, Based on those suggested links, people e. So that, macro and micro policies, curriculums for teaching and training, consultancy as well as support community services aiming to encourage people to become social entrepreneurs will be more oriented and more effective.
As a result, the more sufficient and productive entrepreneurship programs are, the higher the capacity and ability in addressing all challenges or uncertainty of society issues people have. In turn, they will believe more in the better consequences of what they do, and then, they are more highly intent on being social entrepreneurs. Understanding the power of language is important for people who interact with children. Simple labels can help children unify disparate-looking things into coherent categories; thus labeling is a powerful way to foster conceptual development.
Labels also can reify categories or concepts in ways that may or may not be intended. Awareness of the benefits and pitfalls of the language used by adults is important for people who interact with children. The language used by adults affects cognitive growth and learning in children in many subtle ways. Labeling is a powerful way to foster conceptual development. Simple labels can help children unify disparate things into coherent categories, but can also have the unintended consequence of reinforcing categories or concepts that are not desirable.
Some kinds of categories—two round balls, for example—are fairly easy to form, such that even babies treat the objects as similar. But many objects that adults view as members of the same category are perceptually dissimilar, and children would not, on their own, categorize them together. Some categories have very diverse members: consider a greyhound and a bichon frise as dogs, or a tie and a raincoat as clothing.
Atypical members of categories—thinking of a penguin as a bird, for example—also are difficult for children to categorize on their own. Hearing perceptually diverse objects called by the same label enables children to treat them as members of the same category, which in turn affects the kinds of inductive inferences children draw about them cf. Gelman, Even very young children will base their inductive inferences on the category to which objects belong rather than their perceptual features when the objects are labeled. Providing a common label for perceptually disparate objects also is a way of transmitting cultural knowledge to children.
This effect of labeling objects speaks to one of the ways in which ordinary interaction with babies enriches their cognitive development and early learning Graham et al. While categorization has many benefits for developing inductive reasoning, it can also ultimately be associated with inferences that exaggerate differences between categories and similarities within categories. This may be linked to some undesirable consequences, such as stereotyping or prejudice based on these inferences Master et al.
It is impossible for any individual to experience first-hand all of the exemplars of a category. The use of generics is thus an indispensable way of learning about the category as a whole. Generics are a powerful way of conveying general facts, properties, or information about a category, and those generalizations often can stand even in the face of counterexamples Gelman, Therefore, not only.
This stability has many advantages, but as with categorization, it also can be problematic—for example, generic statements about social categories can reify the categories and beliefs about them. When an individual encounters members of a social category that do not share the relevant trait or behavior, those people may then be seen as exceptions but the generalization will still stand. Properties conveyed by generics also are construed as central or essential to the category Cimpian and Markman, Four- and 5-year-old children given the same information conveyed using generic versus nongeneric phrases interpret the information quite differently.
Subtle differences in generic versus nongeneric language used to convey information to children can shape the kinds of generalizations they make, the strength of those generalizations, and the extent to which properties are considered central or defining of the category. Here, too, generics can sometimes play an unwanted role Cimpian and Markman, Dweck and colleagues have shown that children who believe an ability is inherent and fixed are more likely to give up when faced with failure and to lose motivation for and interest in a task, while children who view an ability as malleable are more likely to take on the challenge and work to improve their skill.
Many of the foundations of sophisticated forms of learning, including those important to academic success, are established in the earliest years of life. Development and early learning can be supported continuously as a child develops, and early knowledge and skills inform and influence future learning. Many of these concepts describe cognitive processes that are implicit. By contrast with the explicit knowledge that older children and adults can put into words, implicit knowledge is tacit or nonconscious understanding that cannot readily be consciously described see, e. Examples of implicit knowledge in very young children include many of the early achievements discussed above, such as their implicit theories of living things and of the human mind and their nonconscious awareness of the statistical frequency of the associations among speech sounds in the language they are hearing.
Not all early learning is implicit, of course. Very young children are taking significant strides in their explicit knowledge of language, the functioning of objects, and the characteristics of people and animals in the world around them. Thus early learning occurs on two levels: the growth of knowledge that is visible and apparent, and the growth of implicit understanding that is sometimes more difficult to observe. This distinction between implicit and explicit learning can be confusing to early childhood practitioners and parents , who often do not observe or recognize evidence for the sophisticated implicit learning—or even the explicit learning—taking place in the young children in their care.
Instead, toddlers and young children seem highly distractable, emotional, and not very capable of managing their impulses. All of these observations about young children are true, but at the same time, their astonishing growth in language skills, their very different. This point is especially important because the cognitive abilities of young children are so easily underestimated.
In the past, for example, the prevalent belief that infants lack conceptual knowledge meant that parents and practitioners missed opportunities to explore with them cause and effect, number, or symbolic play. In light of these observations, how do early educators contribute to the cognitive growth of children in their first 3 years? One way is by providing appropriate support for the learning that is occurring in these very young children see, e.
Using an abundance of child-directed language during social interaction, playing counting games e. The implications for instructional practices and curricula for educators working with infants and toddlers are discussed further in Chapter 6. Another way that educators contribute to the cognitive growth of infants and toddlers is through the emotional support they provide Jamison et al.
Emotional support of this kind is important not only as a positive. Moreover, the secure attachments that young children develop with educators contribute to an expectation of adult support that enables young children to approach learning opportunities more positively and confidently. Emotional support and socioemotional development are discussed further later in this chapter. Consider, for example, a parent or other caregiver interacting with a 1-year-old over a shape-sorting toy.
The adult may also be using number words to count the blocks as they are deposited. In this interaction, moreover, the baby is developing both expectations for what this adult is like—safe, positive, responsive—and skills for social interaction such as turn taking. As children further develop cognitively as preschoolers, their growth calls for both similar and different behavior by the adults who work with them.
First, they are more consciously aware of their knowledge—much more of their understanding is now explicit. This means they are more capable of deliberately enlisting what they know into new learning situations, although they are not yet as competent or strategic in doing so as they will be in the primary grades. When faced with a problem or asked a question, they are more capable of offering an answer based on what they know, even when their knowledge is limited. Second, preschoolers are more competent in learning from their deliberate efforts to do so, such as trial-and-error or informal experimentation.
Nonetheless, the potential to underestimate the cognitive abilities of young children persists in the preschool and kindergarten years.
A study in kindergarten revealed that teachers spent most of their time in basic content that children already knew, yet the children benefited more from advanced reading and mathematics content Claessens et al. One example is interactive storybook reading, in which children describe the pictures and label their elements while the adult and child ask and answer questions of each other about the narrative.
In each case, dialogic conversation about text. Language and literacy skills are discussed further in a subsequent section of this chapter, as well as in Chapter 6. In a similar manner, board games can provide a basis for learning and extending number concepts. In several experimental demonstrations, when preschool children played number board games specifically designed to foster their mental representations of numerical quantities, they showed improvements in number line estimates, count-on skill, numerical identification, and other important quantitative concepts Laski and Siegler, Other research has shown that instructional strategies that promote higher-level thinking, creativity, and even abstract understanding, such as talking about ideas or about future events, is associated with greater cognitive achievement by preschool-age children e.
These activities also can be integrated into other instructional practices during a typical day. Preschool-age children are developing a sense of themselves and their competencies, including their academic skills Marsh et al. Their beliefs about their abilities in reading, counting, vocabulary, number games, and other academic competencies derive from several sources, including spontaneous social comparison with other children and feedback from teachers and parents concerning their achievement and the reasons they have done well or poorly.
Primary grade children are using more complex vocabulary and grammar. They are growing in their ability to make mental representations, but they still have difficulty grasping abstract concepts without the aid of real-life references and materials Tomlinson, This is a critical time for children to develop confidence in all areas of life. Children at this age show more independence from parents and family, while friendship, being liked and accepted by peers, becomes more important. Being in school most of the day means greater contact with a larger world, and children begin to develop a greater understanding of their place in that world CDC, Children understand their own feelings more and more, and learn better ways to describe experiences and express thoughts and feelings.
They better understand the consequences of their actions, and their focus on concern for others grows. They are very observant, are willing to play cooperatively and work in teams, and can resolve some conflicts without seeking adult intervention CDC, Children who are unable to self-regulate have emotional difficulties that may interfere with their learning. Educators in these settings are scaffolding the skills that began to develop earlier, so that children are able to gradually apply those skills with less and less external support. This serves as a bridge to succeeding in upper primary grades, so if students lack necessary knowledge and skills in any domain of development and learning, their experience during the early elementary grades is crucial in helping them gain those competencies.
Building on many of the themes that have emerged from this discussion, the following sections continue by looking in more depth at cognitive development with respect to learning specific subjects and then at other major elements of development, including general learning competencies, socioemotional development, and physical development and health.
Andrew N. Meltzoff, Ph.D. | Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences (I-LABS)
These skills and abilities include the general cognitive development discussed above, the general learning competencies that allow children to control their own attention and thinking; and the emotion regulation that allows children to control their own emotions and participate in classroom activities in a productive way the latter two are discussed in sections later in this chapter. Still another important category of skills and abilities, the focus of this section, is subject-matter content knowledge and skills, such as competencies needed specifically for learning language and literacy or mathematics.
Content knowledge and skills are acquired through a developmental process. As children learn about a topic, they progress through increasingly sophisticated levels of thinking with accompanying cognitive components. These developmental learning paths can be used as the core of a learning trajectory through which students can be supported by educators who understand both the content and those levels of thinking. Each learning trajectory has three parts: a goal to develop a certain competence in a topic , a developmental progression children constructing each level of thinking in turn , and instructional activities tasks and teaching practices designed to enable thinking at each higher level.
Learning trajectories also promote the learning of skills and concepts together—an effective approach that leads to both mastery and more fluent, flexible use of skills, as well as to superior conceptual understanding Fuson and Kwon, ; National Mathematics Advisory Panel, See Chapter 6 for additional discussion of using learning trajectories and other instructional practices. Every subject area requires specific content knowledge and skills that are acquired through developmental learning processes.
It is not possible to cover the specifics here for every subject area a young child learns. To maintain a feasible scope, this chapter covers two core subject areas: 1 language and literacy and 2 mathematics. This scope is not meant to imply that learning in other areas, such as science, engineering, social studies, or the arts, is unimportant or less subject specific. Rather, these two were selected because they are foundational for other subject areas and for later academic achievement, and because how they are learned has been well studied in young children compared with many other subject areas.
The development of language and literacy includes knowl-. The following sections address the development of language and literacy skills, including the relationship between the two; the role of the language-learning environment; socioeconomic disparities in early language environments; and language and literacy development in dual language learners. Language skills build in a developmental progression over time as children increase their vocabulary, average sentence length, complexity and sophistication of sentence structure and grammar, and ability to express new ideas through words Kipping et al.
Catts and Kamhi define five features of language that both work independently and interact as children develop language skills: phonology speech sounds of language , semantics meanings of words and phrases , morphology meaningful parts of words and word tenses , syntax rules for combining and ordering words in phrases , and pragmatics appropriate use of language in context.
The first three parameters combined phonology, semantics, and morphology enable listening and speaking vocabulary to develop, and they also contribute to the ability to read individual words.
Developing oral communication skills are closely linked to the interactions and social bonds between adults and children. This comprehension begins with pragmatics—the social aspects of language that include facial and body language as well as words, such that infants recognize positive and negative interactions. Semantics understanding meanings of words and clusters of words that are related soon follows, in which toddlers link objects and their attributes to words. Between the ages of 2 and 4, most children show dramatic growth in language, particularly in understanding the meanings of words, their interrelationships, and grammatical forms Scarborough, Karmiloff and Karmiloff-Smith suggest that children build webs among words with similar semantics, which leads to broader generalizations among classes of related words.
Then, as new words arise from conversation, storytelling, and book reading, these words are linked to. The more often adults use particular words in conversation with young children, the sooner children will use those words in their own speech Karmiloff and Karmiloff-Smith, Research has linked the size of vocabulary of 2-year-olds to their reading comprehension through fifth grade Lee, Book reading stimulates conversation outside the immediate context—for example, children ask questions about the illustrations that may or may not be central to the story.
This introduces new words, which children attach to the features of the illustrations they point out and incorporate into book-centered conversations. This type of language, removed from the here and now, is decontextualized language. Children exposed to experiences not occurring in their immediate environment are more likely to understand and use decontextualized language Hindman et al. Repeated routines also contribute to language development. As books are read repeatedly, children become familiar with the vocabulary of the story and their conversations can be elaborated. Routines help children with developmental delays acquire language and use it more intelligibly van Kleek, The long-term effect of high-quality teacher—child book-centered interactions in preschool lasted through the end of first grade.
New research shows that the effects of interactive reading also hold when adapted to the use of digital media as a platform for decontextualized language and other forms of language development. However, a few studies of e-books also have shown that the bells and whistles of the devices can get in the. See also the discussion of effective use of technology in instruction in Chapter 6. Alongside developing depth of vocabulary including the meaning of words and phrases and their appropriate use in context , other important parameters of language development are syntax rules for combining and ordering words in phrases, as in rules of grammar and morphology meaningful parts of words and word tenses.
Even before the age of 2, toddlers parse a speech stream into grammatical units Hawthorne and Gerken, Long before preschool, most children join words together into sentences and begin to use the rules of grammar i. Along with these morphemic changes to words, understanding syntax helps children order the words and phrases in their sentences to convey and to change meaning. Before children learn to read, the rules of syntax help them derive meaning from what they hear and convey meaning through speech. Cunningham and Zibulsky , p. Although syntactic understanding develops for most children through conversation with adults and older children, children also use these rules of syntax to extract meaning from printed words.
This becomes an important reading skill after first grade, when text meaning is less likely to be supported with pictures.
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Construction of sentences with passive voice and other complex, decontextualized word forms are more likely to be found in books and stories than in directive conversations with young children. An experimental study illustrates the role of exposure to syntactic structures in the development of language comprehension Vasilyeva et al. Four-year-olds listened to stories in active or passive voice. After listening to ten stories, their understanding of passages containing these syntactic structures was assessed.
Although students in both groups understood and could use active voice similar to routine conversation , those who listened to stories with passive voice scored higher on comprehension of this structure. Literacy skills follow a developmental trajectory such that early skills and stages lead into more complex and integrated skills and stages Adams, Seminal theories and studies of reading describe an inextricable link between language development and reading achievement e.
Early oral language competencies predict later literacy Pearson and Hiebert, Not only do young children with stronger oral language competencies acquire new language skills faster than students with poorly developed oral language competencies Dickinson and Porche, , but they also learn key literacy skills faster, such as phonemic awareness and understanding of the alphabetic principle Cooper et al.
Both of these literacy skills in turn facilitate learning to read in kindergarten and first grade. Vocabulary development a complex and integrative feature of language that grows continuously and reading words a skill that most children master by third or fourth grade Ehri, are reciprocally related, and both reading words accurately and understanding what words mean contribute to reading comprehension Gough et al. Because comprehending and learning from text depend largely upon a deep understanding of the language used to communicate the ideas and concepts expressed, oral language skills i.
For example, children with larger speaking vocabularies in preschool may have an easier time with phoneme awareness and the alphabetic. Each word a child knows can influence how well she or he understands a sentence that uses that word, which in turn can influence the acquisition of knowledge and the ability to learn new words.
A stronger speaking and listening vocabulary provides a deeper and wider field of words students can attempt to match to printed words. Being bogged down by figuring out what a given word means slows the rate of information processing and limits what is learned from a sentence. Thus, differences in early vocabulary can have cascading, cumulative effects Fernald et al. The transition from speaking and listening to reading and writing is not a smooth one for many children. Although a well-developed vocabulary can make that transition easier, many children also have difficulty learning the production and meanings of words.
Longitudinal studies of reading disability have found that 70 percent of poor readers had a history of language difficulties Catts et al. The oral language and vocabulary children learn through interactions with parents, siblings, and caregivers and through high-quality interactions with educators provide the foundation for later literacy and for learning across all subject areas, as well as for their socioemotional well-being.
The language interactions children experience at home and in school influence their developing minds and their understanding of concepts and ideas. The daily talk to which children are exposed and in which they participate is essential for developing their minds—a key ingredient for building their knowledge of the world and their understanding of concepts and ideas.
In turn, this conceptual knowledge is a cornerstone of reading success. The bulk of the research on early linguistic experiences has investigated language input in the home environment, demonstrating the features of. The evidence accumulated emphasizes the importance of the quantity of communicative input i. This research has particularly relevant implications for educational practices discussed further in Chapter 6.
The language environment of the classroom can function as a support for developing the kind of language that is characteristic of the school curriculum—for example, giving children opportunities to develop the sophisticated vocabulary and complex syntax found in texts, beginning at a very early age Schleppegrell, ; Snow and Uccelli, Moreover, advances in cognitive science suggest that it is not enough to be immersed in environments that offer multiple opportunities for exposure to varied and rich language experiences.
Rather, the process also needs to be socially mediated through more knowledgeable persons who can impart their knowledge to the learner; again, social interaction is a critical component of cognitive development and learning. Early childhood settings and elementary classrooms thus not only present opportunities for exposure to varied language- and literacy-rich activities whether written or spoken , but also provide a person who is expert in mediating the learning process—the educator.
For example, Huttenlocher and colleagues found greater syntactic skills in preschoolers exposed to teachers who used more syntactically complex utterances. Another study found for monolingual English-speaking children that fourth-grade reading comprehension levels were predicted by exposure to sophisticated vocabulary in preschool. In classroom studies focused on the linguistic environment, the level of analysis has involved broad measures of language use, such as amount of talk i. Children are better prepared to comprehend narrative texts they encounter in school if their early language environments provide more exposure to and opportunities to participate in extended discourse.
This is because extended discourse and narrative texts share similar patterns for communicating ideas Uccelli et al. Engaging groups of children in effective extended discourse involves asking and discussing open-ended questions and encouraging turn taking, as well as monitoring the group to involve nonparticipating children Girolametto and Weitzman, In addition to using interactive storybook and text reading as a platform for back-and-forth conversations often referred to as interactive or dialogic reading, as described in the preceding section Mol et al.
These findings are consistent with the notion that to promote language learning, different inputs are needed at. Children benefit from hearing simplified speech during very early word learning Furrow et al. With more exposure to language and more advanced vocabulary development, they benefit from speech input that is more complex i. Hoff suggests that if input is too complex, children filter it out without negative consequences—as long as sufficient beneficial input is available to them. An important consideration in light of these findings is that recent research in early childhood classrooms serving children from low-income backgrounds suggests that daily high-quality language-building experiences may be rare for these children.
For example, in a Head Start organization serving large numbers of Latino children a recent observational study found a preschool environment lacking in the frequent and high-quality teacher—child language interactions that are needed to support language and literacy development Jacoby and Lesaux, Literacy instruction was highly routine based and with low-level language structures.
Extended discourse was infrequently used; only 22 percent of observed literacy-based lessons included at least one instance of extended discourse between a teacher and a child or group of children. Instead, teachers asked questions that yielded short answers or linked only to the here and now e. What is the weather today? These features of infrequent extended discourse and predominantly routine-based literacy instruction were remarkably stable across teachers and classrooms.
Other research investigating teacher talk in Head Start preschool classrooms has produced similar findings e. This is consistent with findings that there are sizable cultural and socioeconomic differences in high-quality language-promoting experiences in the home and in the classroom environment in early childhood Dickinson, ; Dickinson and Porche, ; Dickinson and Tabors, ; Raikes et al. At the same time, for children from low-resource backgrounds oral language skills show an even stronger connection to later academic outcomes than for children from high-resource backgrounds.
Given these findings, rich linguistic experiences at early ages may therefore be especially important for these children. Even small improvements in the literacy environment can have especially strong effects for children who are raised in low-income households Dearing et al. Improving language environments for young children requires daily learning opportunities that focus on the diversity and complexity of language used with young children. Extended discourse can take place throughout all activities and in specific interactions, especially using book reading as a platform for back-and-forth conversations.
Such studies could advance existing research in at least two ways. In particular, it could further elucidate how language-based social processes in the classroom affect literacy development for the many students who enter schools and other care and education settings with limited proficiency in English. The majority of published studies focused on language-based interactions are focused on English-only learners, despite the fact that social processes can be experienced differently by different groups, even within the same setting Rogoff and Angelillo, ; Tseng and Seidman, In addition, prior research has measured a two-way process in a largely unidirectional manner—measuring speech only from parent to child or educator to student.
More specifically, Justice and colleagues suggest that future research examine teacher—child language interactions in a multidimensional way to explore how syntactic complexity, cognitive demand, and even linguistic form e. Finally, greater understanding is needed of the ways in which the classroom language processes described in this section might act as a foundational mediator of the efficacy of interventions focused on learning outcomes in other domains and subject areas. This study also found that children with advanced language skills will receive greater benefits from interacting with peers who also have advanced language skills Mashburn et al.
In order to achieve these benefits, however, the preschool classrooms need to be designed so that peers can interact with one another, and include activities such as reading books and engaging in play together. Children with teachers who organize the day with optimal amounts of time for peer-to-peer interactions may achieve greater language growth Mashburn et al. For children whose home language is not the predominant language of their school, educators and schools need to ensure the development of English proficiency. At the same time, children can be helped to both build and maintain their first language while adding language and literacy skills in English Espinosa, In support of this as a long-term goal are the potential advantages of being bilingual, including maintaining a cultural and linguistic heritage and conferring an advantage in the ability to communicate with a broader population in future social, educational, and work environments.
Additionally, an emerging field of research, albeit with mixed results to date, explores potential advantages of being bilingual that are linked more directly to cognitive development, starting in early childhood and extending to preserving cognitive function and delaying the symptoms of dementia in the elderly Bialystok, ; de Bruin et al. Bilingual or multilingual children are faced with more communicative challenges than their monolingual peers.
A child who frequently experiences failure to be understood or to understand may be driven to pay more attention to context, paralinguistic cues, and gestures in order to interpret an utterance, and thus become better at reading such cues. The result may be improved development of theory of mind and understanding of pragmatics Yow and Markman, a,b. In addition, the need to continually suppress one language for another affords ongoing practice in inhibitory or executive control, which could confer advantages on a range of inhibitory control tasks in children and helps preserve this fundamental ability in aging adults Bialystok, ; Bialystok and Craik, ; Bialystok et al.
One challenge in the education of dual language learners is that they sometimes are classified along with children with special needs. One reason for this is the lack of good assessment tools to help distinguish the nature of the difficulties experienced by dual language learners—whether due to a learning disability or to the fact that learning a second language is difficult, takes time, and develops differently in different children Hamayan et al.
More information about this study can be found at www. Mathematics knowledge in preschool predicts mathematics achievement even into high school National Mathematics Advisory Panel, ; NRC, ; Stevenson and Newman, Mathematics ability and language ability also are interrelated as mutually reinforcing skills Duncan et al.
Indeed, mathematical thinking reaches beyond competence with numbers and shapes to form a foundation for general cognition and learning Clements and Sarama, ; Sarama et al. Mathematics therefore appears to be a core subject and a core component of thinking and learning Duncan and Magnuson, ; Duncan et al.
Given its general importance to academic success Sadler and Tai, , children need a robust foundation in mathematics knowledge in their earliest years. Multiple analyses suggest that mathematics learning should begin early, especially for children at risk for later difficulties in school Byrnes and Wasik, ; Clements and Sarama, Well before first grade, children can learn the skills and concepts that support more complex mathematics understanding later.
Particularly important areas of mathematics for young children to learn include number, which includes whole number, operations, and relations; geometry; spatial thinking; and measurement. Children also need to develop proficiency in processes for both general and specific mathematical reasoning NRC, If given opportunities to learn, young children possess a remarkably broad, complex, and sophisticated—albeit informal—knowledge of mathematics Baroody, ; Clarke et al.
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