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Southern Songhay languages | Revolvy
Additional Product Features Grade to. Imperfective: habitual and progressive, e. In addition to this, some stative expressions use the Imperfective, e. The exact distribution of Perfective and Imperfective expressions of state is unknown. Subjunctive: In main clauses, the subjunctive expresses a wish or an order. In subordinate clauses, it is used to express finality, e.
There is no obvious difference in use between the two, e. The expressions have become fully grammaticalized.
The exact structure and meaning of this construction need more investigation see Alidou for more examples. There are a number of verbal derivations in Tasawaq:. The derivational nature rather than considering them clitics or adverbs of the directional suffixes is shown by two arguments:. One verb shows irregular changes in stem shape: . Pluractional derivation marked by full reduplication. The examples that were collected concern monosyllabic verbs:.
In the variety spoken by Mrs Ibrahim, it is restricted to a lexically determined set of verbs:. Different from our data, Alidou describes the causative derivation as regular and productive. She provides a number of examples, some of which were not accepted by Mrs. Tuareg has a productive causative derivation, and there are some cases in Tasawaq where a Tuareg underived verb corresponds to a Tuareg causative verb, or where a Songhay underived verb corresponds to a Tuareg causative verb.
Different from some other Northern Songhay languages cf. Christiansen , this takes place only sporadically, and such cases are best considered lexical causatives. A certain number of verbs are labile in their syntax, i. There are a number of derivations that make nouns out of verbs.
Some of these also apply to verbal and to nominal bases. The most generally found derivation is the action noun. With verbs of Songhay origin, Mrs. In one class of verbs the tone changes, while there are a few residual cases of suffixation. Verbs borrowed from Tuareg have Tuareg verbal nouns. The majority of Tasawaq verbs have verbal nouns identical to the verb. Their nominal nature can only be shown by their syntactic behavior as the head of a noun phrase, e.
Verbal nouns of Low-tone monosyllabic verbs change their tone to Falling. I have not been able to determine the tone of verbal nouns of Low-tone monosyllabic verbs which have syllabic shapes where Falling tone is excluded. A small number of Songhay-based verbs eight in my corpus add a suffix to the verb in order to make the corresponding verbal noun. Sometimes this suffixation is accompanied by other changes. The suffix -k w ay polar tone is used in order to derive agent nouns.
The derivation expresses that the person involved is habitually closely related to, or defineable by the action or the object it is attached to. The use of -k w ay derived nouns is common with professions, e. It is not clear to what extent these verbs can be combined with imperfective MAN morphemes. The markers of locality, existence, and negative identity function like normal verbs, e.
Different from other verbs, it is placed after its predicate, and always preceded by a pronoun.
In the negation, it is possible to have the negated attributive marker between the subject and the predicate and still the positive attributive marker in final position:. The Text with Annotations. In spite of the lack of natural context, it was told with great confidence, and hardly contains any hesitations or false starts. The story is told in a very lively way and with great humor. A first transcription of the text was made with the help of Mrs. The present transcription is based on careful re-listening of the recording on the basis of this first transcription.
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